Chapter 3
General characteristics of GMPEs for PGA

Table 3.1 gives the general characteristics of published attenuation relations for peak ground acceleration. The columns are:

H
Number of horizontal records (if both horizontal components are used then multiply by two to get total number)
V
Number of vertical components
E
Number of earthquakes
Mmin
Magnitude of smallest earthquake
Mmax
Magnitude of largest earthquake
M scale
Magnitude scale (scales in brackets refer to those scales which the main M values were sometimes converted from, or used without conversion, when no data existed), where:
m1
Intermediate spectral magnitude (Chen and Atkinson2002)
mb
Body-wave magnitude
MC
Chinese surface wave magnitude
MCL
Coda length magnitude
MD
Duration magnitude
MJMA
Japanese Meteorological Agency magnitude
ML
Local magnitude
MLw
Local moment magnitude reported by the Icelandic Meterological Office
MbLg
Magnitude calculated using Lg amplitudes on short-period vertical seismographs
Ms
Surface-wave magnitude
Mw
Moment magnitude
rmin
Shortest source-to-site distance
rmax
Longest source-to-site distance
r scale
Distance metric, where (when available the de facto standard abbreviations of Abrahamson and Shedlock (1997) are used):
rc
Distance to rupture centroid
repi
Epicentral distance
rE
Distance to energy centre
rjb
Distance to projection of rupture plane on surface (Joyner and Boore1981)
rhypo
Hypocentral (or focal) distance
rq
Equivalent hypocentral distance (EHD) (Ohno et al.1993)
rrup
Distance to rupture plane
rseis
Distance to seismogenic rupture plane (assumes near-surface rupture in sediments is non-seismogenic) (Campbell1997)
S
Number of different site conditions modelled, where:
C
Continuous classification
I
Individual classification for each site
C
Use of the two horizontal components of each accelerogram [see Beyer and Bommer (2006)], where:
1
Principal 1
2
Principal 2
A
Arithmetic mean
B
Both components
C
Randomly chosen component
D50
GMrotD50 (Boore et al.2006).
EW
East-west direction.
G
Geometric mean
I50
GMrotI50 (Boore et al.2006).
L
Larger component
L3
Largest of all 3 components (including vertical)
M
Mean (not stated what type)
N
Fault normal
O
Randomly oriented component
P
Fault parallel
Q
Quadratic mean,   -----------
∘ (a2+ a2)∕2
    1    2, where a1 and a2 are the two components (Hong and Goda2007)
R
Resolved component
S
∘ -----------
  (a1 + a2)∕2, where a1 and a2 are the two components (Reyes1998)
U
Unknown
V
Vectorially-resolved component, i.e. square root of sum of squares of the two components
V3
Vectorially-resolved component including vertical, i.e. square root of sum of squares of the three components
R
Regression method used, where:
1
Ordinary one-stage
1B
Bayesian one-stage (Ordaz et al.1994)
1M
Maximum likelihood one-stage or random-effects (Abrahamson and Youngs1992Joyner and Boore1993)
1W
Weighted one-stage
1WM
Weighted maximum-likelihood one-stage
2
Two-stage (Joyner and Boore1981)
2M
Maximum likelihood two-stage (Joyner and Boore1993)
2W
Two-stage with second staged weighted as described in Joyner and Boore (1988)
O
Other (see section referring to study)
U
Unknown (often probably ordinary one-stage regression)
M
Source mechanisms (and tectonic type) of earthquakes (letters in brackets refer to those mechanism that are separately modelled), where:
A
All (this is assumed if no information is given in the reference)
AS
Aftershock
B
Interslab
C
Shallow crustal
E
Gas extraction
F
Interface
G
Geothermal-related
HW
Hanging wall
I
Intraplate
M
Mining-induced
N
Normal
O
Oblique or odd (Frohlich and Apperson1992)
R
Reverse
S
Strike-slip
T
Thrust
U
Unspecified
UM
Upper mantle

‘+’ refers to extra records from outside region used to supplement data. (…) refer either to magnitudes of supplementing records or to those used for part of analysis. * means information is approximate because either read from graph or found in another way.

Table 3.1: Characteristics of published peak ground acceleration relations















Reference

Area

H

V

E

Mmin

Mmax

M scale

rmin

rmax

r scale

S

C

R

M
















Esteva and Rosenblueth (1964)

W. USA

46*

-

U

U

U

U

15*

450*

rhypo

1

U

U

A
















Kanai (1966)

California & Japan

U

-

U

U

U

U

U

U

rrup

C

U

U

A
















Milne and Davenport (1969)

W. USA

U

-

U

U

U

U

U

U

repi

1

U

U

A
















Esteva (1970)

W. USA

U

-

U

U

U

U

15*

500*

rhypo

1

U

U

A
















Denham and Small (1971)

Yonki, New Guinea

8

-

8

U

U

ML1

U

U

rhypo

1

U

U

A
















Davenport (1972)

Unknown

U

-

U

U

U

U

U

U

rhypo

1

U

U

A
















Denham et al. (1973)

Papua New Guinea

25

-

25

5.2

8.0

ML

80*

300

U

1

U

1

A
















Donovan (1973)

Mostly W. USA but 100+ foreign

678

-

U

<5

>8

U

3*

450*

rhypo

1

U

U

A
















Esteva and Villaverde (1973) & Esteva (1974)

W. USA

U

-

U

U

U

U

15*

150*

rhypo

1

B

U

A
















Katayama (1974)

Japan

330

-

46

5.1

7.8

U2

U

U

rhypo

1

A

1

A
















McGuire (1974) & McGuire (1977)

W. USA

34

-

22

5.3

7.6

ML

14

125

rhypo

1

B

U

A
















Orphal and Lahoud (1974)

California

140

-

31

4.1

7.0

ML

15

350

rhypo

1

U

O

A
















Ahorner and Rosenhauer (1975)

Worldwide

U

-

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

A
















Ambraseys (1975b), Ambraseys (1975a) & Ambraseys (1978a)

Europe

58

-

U3

3.5

5.0

ML

5

35

rhypo

1

U4

U

A
















Shah and Movassate (1975)

Worldwide

U

-

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

A
















Trifunac and Brady (1975a),Trifunac (1976a) & Trifunac and Brady (1976)

W. USA

181

181

57

3.8

7.7

Mostly ML

65*

4006*

repi

3

B

O

A
















Blume (1977)

California & W. Nevada

7957

-

U

U

U

ML

U

U

rhypo

2 (1)

B

U

A
















Milne (1977)

W. USA

200*

-

U

3.5

7.7

U

1

380

rhypo

1

U

U

A
















Saeki et al. (1977)

Japan

298

-

U

U

U

U8

U

U

repi

4

U

1

A
















Ambraseys (1978b)

Europe & Middle East

162

-

U

3.0*

6.6

mb

0*

30*

rhypo

1

L

O

A
















Donovan and Bornstein (1978)

W. USA

59

-

10

5.0

7.7

U9

0.1

321

rE, rrup and rhypo

1

B

O

A
















Faccioli (1978)

Mostly W. USA & Japan, some foreign

4710

-

23

4.9

7.8

U11

15

342

rhypo

1

B

U

A
















Goto et al. (1978)

Japan

45

-

U

U

U

U12

U

U

repi

1

U

1

A
















McGuire (1978a)

W. USA

70

-

17+*

4.5*

7.7

U13

11*

210*

rhypo

2

B

U

A
















A. Patwardhan et al. (1978)14

Worldwide

63 (32)

-

25 (23)

4 (5.3)

7.7 (7.8)

Ms

U

U

rrup

2

B

U

A
















Cornell et al. (1979)

W. USA

70

-

U

U

U

ML

U

U

rhypo

1

C

U

A
















Faccioli (1979)

Friuli, Italy

1915

-

5*

3.7

6.3

ML

10*

30*

rhypo

1

B

1

A
















Faccioli and Agalbato (1979)

Friuli, Italy

66

52

14

3.7

6.3

ML

5 (repi)

190 (repi)

rhypo

2

B

1

A
















Aptikaev and Kopnichev (1980)

Worldwide

Many 100s

- (70*)

U (59)

U

U

U

U

U

rhypo

1

U

U

A (T, TS, S, SN, N)16
















Blume (1980)

W. USA

816

-

U

2.1

7.6

U

0

449

rhypo

1

B

1, O

A
















Iwasaki et al. (1980)

Japan

301

-

51

>5.0

<7.9

ML17

<20

>200

repi

4

U

1

A
















Matuschka (1980)

New Zealand

61

-

U

4.5*

U

U

U

120

dhypo

U

U

1

A
















Ohsaki et al. (1980b)

Japan

75

75

U

4

7.4

U

6

500

rhypo

1

U

1

A
















Campbell (1981)

W. USA+8 foreign

116

-

27

5.0

7.7

ML for M < 6.0 and Ms otherwise

0.08

47.7

rrup

1

M

O

A
















Chiaruttini and Siro (1981)

Europe & Mid. East

224

-

117

2.7

7.8

ML (mb)

3

480

rhypo

1

L

1

A
















Goto et al. (1981)

Japan

84

-

28

4.3*

7.8*

U18

11*

300*

repi

1, C

L

1

A
















Joyner and Boore (1981)

W. N. America

182

-

23

5.0

7.7

Mw (ML)

0.5

370

rjb

2

L

2

A
















Bolt and Abrahamson (1982)

W. N. America

182

-

23

5.0

7.7

Mw (ML)

0.5

370

rjb

1

L

O

A
















Joyner and Boore (1982b) & Joyner and Boore (1988)

W. N. America

182

-

23

5.0

7.7

Mw (ML)

0.5

370

rjb

2

L

2

A
















PML (1982)

Europe + USA + others

113

-

32

4.3

8

Ms

0.1

330

rhypo or rrup

1

U

U

A
















Schenk (1982)

Unknown

3500

-

U

2.5

6.5

Ms

2

600

rhypo

1

U

O

A
















Brillinger and Preisler (1984)

W. N. America

182

-

23

5.0

7.7

Mw (ML)

0.5

370

rjb

2

L

1M

A
















Campbell (1984) & K.W. Campbell (1988)19

Worldwide

U

-

U

5

U

ML for M < 6.0 and Ms otherwise

U

<50

rseis

2

M

U

A (S, R)
















Joyner and Fumal (1984) and Joyner and Fumal (1985)

W. N. America

182

-

23

5.0

7.7

Mw (ML)

0.5

370

rjb

C

L

2

A
















Kawashima et al. (1984) & Kawashima et al. (1986)

Japan

197

-

90

5.0

7.9

MJMA

5*

550*

repi

3

R

1

A
















McCann Jr. and Echezwia (1984)

N. America + foreign

83

-

18

5.0+

U

Mw

U

U

rrup

1

U

O

A
















Schenk (1984)

Unknown

3500

-

U

2.5

6.5

U

2

600

rhypo

1

U

O

A
















Xu et al. (1984)

N. China

19

-

10

4.5

7.8

Mw (ML for M < 6.0, Ms for M 6.0)

10.1

157

repi

1

L

1

A
















Brillinger and Preisler (1985)

W. N. America

182

-

23

5.0

7.7

Mw (ML)

0.5

370

rjb

2

L

1M

A
















Kawashima et al. (1985)

Japan

-

119

90*

5.0*

7.5*

MJMA

5*

500*

repi

3

-

1

A
















Makropoulos and Burton (1985) & Makropoulos (1978)

Worldwide

U

-

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

A
















Peng et al. (1985b)

N.E. China

73

-

20

3.7

7.8

MC

2

442.5

repi

1

U

1

A
















Peng et al. (1985a)

Tangshan region, China

93

87

19

2.9

5.3

ML

2*

50*

repi

1

L

2

A
















PML (1985)

USA + Europe + others

203

-

46

3.1

6.9

Ms

0.1

40

rrup

1

U

U

A (S, T)
















McCue (1986)

E. Australia

U

-

U

1.7

5.4

ML

2.5

134

rhypo

1

U

U

A
















C.B. Crouse (1987)20

S. California

U

-

U

U

U

Ms

U

U

rrup

1

B

U

A
















Krinitzsky et al. (1987) & Krinitzsky et al. (1988)

Plate boundaries21

38922

-

U

5.0*

7.4*23

M24

7*25

200*26

rhypo27

2

B

O

A
















Sabetta and Pugliese (1987)

Italy

95

-

17

4.6

6.8

Ms for M 5.5, ML otherwise

1.5, 1.5

179, 180

Both rjb & repi

2

L

1

A
















K. Sadigh (1987)28

W. USA + others

U

-

U

U

U

Mw

U

U

rrup

2

B

U

A (S, R)
















Singh et al. (1987)

Mexico

16

-

16

5.6

8.1

Ms

282

466

rrup

1

U

1

A
















Algermissen et al. (1988)

Vicinity of San Salvador

82

-

U

U

U

Ms

U

U

rhypo

1

M

U

A
















Annaka and Nozawa (1988)

Japan

U

-

45

U

U

U

U

U

U

1

U

1

A
















Fukushima et al. (1988) & Fukushima and Tanaka (1990)

Japan+200 W. USA

486+200

-

28+15

4.6(5.0)

8.2(7.7)

Ms (MJMA)

16 (0.1)

303 (48)

rhypo, rrup for 2 Japanese & all US

4

G

2

A
















Gaull (1988)

S.W. W. Australia

25+

-

12+

2.6

6.9

ML

2.5

175

rhypo

1

U

O

A
















Joyner and Boore (1988)

W. N. America

182

-

23

5.0

7.7

Mw (ML)

0.5

370

rjb

2

L, O

2W

A
















McCue et al. (1988)

S.E. Australia

62

-

U

0.5*

6*

ML

5*

833

repi

1

U

O

A
















Petrovski and Marcellini (1988)

Europe

120

120

46

3

7

U

8

200

rhypo

1

L

1

A
















PML (1988)29

USA + Europe + others

162

124

30*

3.0*

7.0

Ms

10*

150

rhypo

3

L, V

1

A
















Tong and Katayama (1988)

Kanto (Japan)

<227

-

<27

4.5*

7.9*

U

10*

750*

repi

C

L

O

A
















Yamabe and Kanai (1988)

Japan

U

-

22

5.3

7.9

U

U

U

rhypo

1

U

O

A
















Youngs et al. (1988)

Worldwide subduction zones

197+389

-

60

5

8.1 (8.2)30

Mw (Ms, mb)

15* (20*)

450* (450*)

rrup, rhypo for Mw 7.5

1

G

1W

A (B,F)
















Abrahamson and Litehiser (1989)

75%+ California, rest foreign

585

585

76

5.0

8.1

Ms for Ms 6.0, ML (mb) otherwise

0.08

400

rrup

1

L

O

A (R & RO, I)
















Campbell (1989)

W. N. America + 3 from Managua

190

-

91

2.9

5.0

ML

0.6

18.3

repi

1

M

O

A
















Huo (1989)

W. USA & S. China

U

-

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

1

G

1

A
















Ordaz et al. (1989)

Guerrero, Mexico

U

-

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

A
















Alfaro et al. (1990)

Guatemala, Nicaragua & El Salvador

20

-

12

4.1

7.5

Ms

1

27

repi

1

L

U

A
















Ambraseys (1990)

W. N. America

182

-

23

5.03

7.7

Mw (ML)

0.5

370

rjb

2

L

2

A
















Campbell (1990)

Unknown

U

-

U

U

U

ML for M < 6, Ms for M 6

U

U

rseis

1

U

U

A
















Dahle et al. (1990b) & Dahle et al. (1990a)

Worldwide intraplate regions

87

-

56

2.9

7.8

Ms (ML, mb, MCL)

6

1300

rhypo

1

L

2

A
















Jacob et al. (1990)

E. N. America

U

-

8

1.8

6.4

mb

20

820

U31

1

U

O

A
















Sen (1990)

Whittier Narrows area

72*

-

11

2.2

3.5

ML

12*

21*

rhypo

1

U

1M

A (T)
















Sigbjörnsson (1990)

Iceland

U

-

U

U

5.832

U

U

U

rjb

1

U

U

A
















Tsai et al. (1990)

Worldwide

<217

-

<51

4.9*

7.4

Mw

3*

150*

rrup

1

M

U

T (S,O)
















Ambraseys and Bommer (1991) & Ambraseys and Bommer (1992)

Europe & Mid. East

529

459

H:219, V:191

4

7.34

Ms

1

H:313, V:214

rjb for Ms 6.0, repi otherwise

1

L

1, 2

A
















Crouse (1991)

Worldwide subduction zones

69733

-

U

4.8

8.2

Mw (Ms, MJMA)

>8

>866

rE, rhypo for M < 7.5

1

B

1

A
















Garcěa-Fernŕndez and Canas (1991) & Garcia-Fernandez and Canas (1995)

Iberia34

57

367

U

3.1

5.0

mbLg

U

U

repi

1

-

1

A
















Geomatrix Consultants (1991), Sadigh et al. (1993) & Sadigh et al. (1997)

California with 4 foreign

960+4

U

119+2

3.8 (6.8)

7.4 (7.4)

Mw

0.1 (3)

305 (172)35

rrup for some, rhypo for small ones

2

G

U

A(R,S)
















Huo and Hu (1991)

W. USA with 25 foreign

383+25

-

14+2

5.0

7.4 (7.3)

ML or mb for M < 6.0 and Ms otherwise

0.1

227 (265)

rjb

2

B

O

A
















I.M. Idriss (1991) reported in Idriss (1993)

Unknown

572

-

30*

4.6

7.4

ML for M < 6, Ms for M 6

1

100

rrup, rhypo for M < 6

1

U

U

A
















Loh et al. (1991)

Taiwan

112

-

63

4.0

7.1

ML

5.0

178.3

rhypo

1

L

U

A
















Matuschka and Davis (1991)

New Zealand

80

80

30

U

U

U

U

U

U

3

B

U

A
















Niazi and Bozorgnia (1991)

SMART-1 array, Taiwan

236

234

12

3.6

7.8

ML (MD) for ML < 6.6, else Ms

3.136

119.736

rhypo

1

M

2W

A
















Rogers et al. (1991)

Worldwide

1241

-

180*

5.3*

8.1*

ML for M 6, Ms for 6 < M < 8 and Mw for M 8

4*

400*

rrup if have, rhypo otherwise

6

L

1

A
















Stamatovska and Petrovski (1991)

Mainly Italy and former Yugoslavia

48937

-

78

3*

8*

ML

10*

500*

rhypo

1

B

1

A
















Abrahamson and Youngs (1992)

Unknown

U

-

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

1

U

1M

A (U, U)
















Ambraseys et al. (1992)

USA + Europe + others

504

-

45

3.1

6.87

Ms

0.5

39

rjb, repi for some

1

L

1

A
















Huo and Hu (1992)

China & W. USA

U

-

U

U

U

Ms

U

U

rjb

1

U

1

A
















Kamiyama et al. (1992) & Kamiyama (1995)

Japan

357

-

82

4.1

7.9

MJMA

3.4

413.3

rhypo

I

B

O

A
















Sigbjörnsson and Baldvinsson (1992)

Iceland

262

-

39

2.0

6.0

U

2

80

rjb

2

B,L

2

A
















Silva and Abrahamson (1992)

W. USA with 4 foreign

136

-

12

6.1

7.4

Mw

3*

100*

rseis

2

G

1M

A (S,R)
















Taylor Castillo et al. (1992)

Nicaragua, El Salvador & Costa Rica

89

-

27

3.0

7.6

Ms

6

210

rhypo

1

L

U

A
















Tento et al. (1992)

Italy

137

-

40

4

6.6

ML

3.2

170

rjb for ML 5.7, repi otherwise

1

L

2

A
















Theodulidis and Papazachos (1992)

Greece+16 foreign

105+1638

-

36+4

4.5 (7.2)

7.0 (7.5)

Ms, Mw, MJMA

1 (48)

128 (236)

repi

2

B

O

A
















Abrahamson and Silva (1993)

W. USA with 4 foreign

201

-

18

6.0

7.4

Mw

0.6*

100*

rrup

2

G

1M

A (S, R)
















Boore et al. (1993), Boore et al. (1997) & Boore (2005)

W. N. America

271

-

20

5.139

7.7

Mw

0

118.2

rjb

3

L, G

2M

A
















Campbell (1993)

Worldwide

U

-

U

U40

U

ML for M < 6.0 and Ms otherwise

U

U41

rseis

2

M

O

A (T,S)
















Dowrick and Sritharan (1993)

New Zealand

U

-

8

U

U

U

U

U

rjb

U

U

1

A
















Gitterman et al. (1993)

Israel

U

-

U

3.9

5.1

ML

U

U

repi

1

U

U

A
















McVerry et al. (1993) & McVerry et al. (1995)

New Zealand

256

-

31*

5.1

7.3

Mw

13

312

rc or rhypo

1

L

1

A, R
















Midorikawa (1993a)

Japan

U

-

U

6.5

7.8

Mw

U

U

rrup

1

G

1

A
















Quijada et al. (1993)

S. America

U

-

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

A
















Singh et al. (1993)

Nicaragua, El Salvador & Costa Rica

89

-

27

3.0

7.6

Ms

6

210

rhypo

1

V

O

A
















Steinberg et al. (1993)

Worldwide

U

-

U

U

5*

U

U

U

repi

1

U

1

A
















Sun and Peng (1993)

W. USA with 1 foreign

150+1

-

42+1

4.1

7.7

ML for M < 6, else Ms

2*

150*

repi

C

R

1

A
















Ambraseys and Srbulov (1994)

Worldwide

947

-

76

5.0

7.7

Ms

1

375

rjb, repi

1

L

2W

A
















Boore et al. (1994a) & Boore et al. (1997)

W. N. America

271 (70)

-

20 (9)

5.142 (5.3)

7.7 (7.4)

Mw

0

118.2 (109)

rjb

C

L, G

1M, 2M

A (R,S)43
















El Hassan (1994)

Unknown

U

-

U

U

U

ML

U

U

rhypo

1

U

1

A
















Fat-Helbary and Ohta (1994)

Aswan, Egypt

50

-

50

U

U

mb

U

U

rhypo

1

U

1

A
















Fukushima et al. (1994) & Fukushima et al. (1995)

3 vertical arrays in Japan

285

284

42

5.0

7.7

MJMA

60*

400*

rhypo

I

B

1,2

A
















Lawson and Krawinkler (1994)

W. USA

250+

-

11

5.8

7.4

Mw

U

100

rjb

3

U

1M

A
















Lungu et al. (1994)

Romania

300

125

4

6.3

7.4

Mw

U

U

rhypo

1

U

1

A
















Musson et al. (1994)

UK + 30* foreign

15 + 30*

-

4+16

3 (3.7)

3.5 (6.4)

ML

70* (>1.3)

>477.4 (200*)

rhypo

1

U44

O

A
















Radu et al. (1994), Lungu et al. (1995a) & Lungu et al. (1996)

Romania

106

-

3

6.7(ML) or 7.0(Mw)

7.2(ML) or 7.5(Mw)

U45

90*

320*

rhypo

1

L

1

A
















Ramazi and Schenk (1994)

Iran

83

83

20

5.1

7.7

Ms46

8

180

rhypo for most, rrup for 1947

2

U

U

A
















Xiang and Gao (1994)

Yunnan, China + 114 W. N. America

131+114

-

U

2.5*

7.6*

Ms (ML)

2*

120*

repi

1

L

U

A
















Aman et al. (1995)

Himalayan region

84*

-

5

5.7

7.2

MB

3*

350*

repi

1

U

U

A
















Ambraseys (1995)

Europe and Mid. East

830

620

334

4.0

7.3

Ms

0*

260*

rjb for Ms > 6.0, repi otherwise

1

L

2W

A
















Dahle et al. (1995)

Cen. America

280

-

72

3*

8*

Mw (Ms, mb,MD)

6*

490*

rhypo

2

L

1B

A
















Lee et al. (1995)

W. N. America

1926

1926

297

1.7

7.7

Usually ML for M 6.5 and Ms for M > 6.5

2

200+

rhypo

9, 3 × C

U

1

A
















Lungu et al. (1995b)

Romania

106

-

3

6.7(ML) or 7.0(Mw)

7.2(ML) or 7.5(Mw)

U48

U

U

rhypo

1

L

1

A
















Molas and Yamazaki (1995)

Japan

2166

-

387

4.1*

7.8*

MJMA

8*

1000*

rrup for 2 earthquakes, rhypo otherwise

I

L

O

A
















Sarma and Free (1995)

E. N. America49

77

-

33

2.8

5.9

Mw (mb, ML, Ms)

0

820

rjb or repi

2

U

1

A
















Ambraseys et al. (1996) & Simpson (1996)

Europe & Mid. East

422

-

157

4.0

7.9

Ms (unspecified)

0

260

rjb for Ms > 6.0, repi otherwise

3

L

2W50

A
















Ambraseys and Simpson (1996) & Simpson (1996)

Europe & Mid. East

-

417

157

4.0

7.9

Ms (unspecified)

0

260

rjb for M > 6.0, repi otherwise

3

-

2W51

A
















Aydan et al. (1996) & Aydan (2001)

Turkey

27*

23*

19*

3.5*

7.6*

Ms

10*

350*

rhypo

1

U

1

A
















Bommer et al. (1996)

El Salvador & Nicaragua

36

-

20

3.7

7.0

Ms

62

260

rhypo

1

L

U

A
















Crouse and McGuire (1996)

Cen. & S. California

238

-

16

6.0

7.7

Ms

0.1

211

rrup

4

G

1W

R,S (R,S)
















Free (1996) & Free et al. (1998)

Stable continental regions

558

478

H: 222, V: 189

1.5

6.8

Mw

0

820

rjb for some, repi for most

2

L

1

A
















Inan et al. (1996)

Turkey

U

-

U

U

U

U

U

U

repi

1

U

U

A
















Ohno et al. (1996)

California

248

-

17

5.0

7.5

Mw (ML)

7.2

99.6

rq for M > 5.3, rhypo otherwise

2

B

2M

A
















Romeo et al. (1996)

Italy

95

-

17

4.6*

6.8*

Mw

1.5, 1.5

179, 180

Both rjb & repi

2

L

1

A
















Sarma and Srbulov (1996)

Worldwide

350

-

114

3.9

7.7

Ms

1

213

rjb & repi

1

B, L

U

A
















Singh et al. (1996)

Himalayas

86

-

5

5.7

7.2

mb

33.15

340.97

rhypo

1

U

1

A
















Spudich et al. (1996) & Spudich et al. (1997)

Worldwide extensional regimes

128

-

30

5.10

6.90

Mw

0

102.1

rjb

2

G, O

2M

NS
















Stamatovska and Petrovski (1996)

Romania, Bulgaria & former Yugoslavia

19052

-

4

6.1

7.2

ML53

10*

310*

repi

1

B

1

A
















Ansal (1997)

Turkey

U

-

U

U

U

Mw

U

U

rhypo

1

U

U

A
















Campbell (1997), Campbell (2000), Campbell (2001) & Campbell and Bozorgnia (1994)

Worldwide

645

225

H:47, V:26

4.7

H:8.0, V:8.1

Mw

3

60

rseis

3

G

1

A(S,R,N)
















Munson and Thurber (1997)

Hawaii

51

-

22

4.0

7.2

Ms for Ms 6.1, ML otherwise

0

88

rjb

2

L

2M

A
















Pancha and Taber (1997)

New Zealand

U

-

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

1

U

2

A
















Rhoades (1997)

W. N. America

182

-

23

5.0

7.7

Mw (ML)

0.5

370

rjb

1

L

O

A
















Schmidt et al. (1997)

Costa Rica

200

-

57

3.3

7.6

Mw (Ms, mb, MD)

6.1

182.1

rhypo

3

L, B

O

A
















Youngs et al. (1997)

Worldwide subduction zones

476

-

164

5.0

8.2

Mw (Ms,mb)

8.5

550.9

rrup, rhypo for some

2

G

1M

NT
















Zhao et al. (1997)

NZ with 66 foreign

46154+66

-

49+17

5.08

7.23(7.41)

Mw

11 (0.1)

573 (10)

rrup for some, rc for most

2

U

1

A(R)
















Baag et al. (1998)

Korea

U

-

U

U

U

U

U

U

repi

1

U

U

A
















Bouhadad et al. (1998)

Algeria

U

-

2

5.6

6.1

Ms

20

70

rhypo

1

L, M

1

A
















Costa et al. (1998)

Friuli

80*

80*

20*

1.3*

4.3*

MD

3*

66*

rhypo

1

U

1

A
















Manic (1998)

N.W. Balkans

27655

-

56

4

7

Ms

U

U

rhypo

2

B

1

A
















Reyes (1998)

University City, Mexico City

20+

-

20+

U

U

Mw

U

U

rrup

I

S

U

A
















Rinaldis et al. (1998)

Italy & Greece

137*

-

24*

4.5

7

Ms or Mw

7

138

repi

2

U

O

A (N,ST)
















Sadigh and Egan (1998)

California with 4 foreign

960+4

-

119+2

3.8

7.4

Mw

0.1

30556

rrup for some, rhypo for small ones

2

G

U

A(R,SN)
















Sarma and Srbulov (1998)

Worldwide

69057

-

113

3.9

7.7

Ms (U)

0

197

rjb, repi

2

B

1

A
















Sharma (1998)

Indian Himalayas

66

-

5

5.5

6.6

U

8

248

rhypo

1

L

1W

A
















Smit (1998)

Switzerland + some from S. Germany

1546

<1546

H: <120, V: 120

2.0

5.1

ML

1

290

rhypo

1

U

2

A
















Theodulidis et al. (1998)

Kozani-Grevena (Greece)

23258

-

>23

3.1

6.6

Mw

1

140*

repi

1

B

O

A
















Cabańas et al. (1999), Cabańas et al. (2000), Benito et al. (2000) & Benito and Gaspar-Escribano (2007)

Mediterranean region59

U

U

U

2.5

7.0

Ms60

0

250

repi61

4

L

1

A
















Chapman (1999)

W. N. America

304

-

23

5.0

7.7

Mw

0.1

189.4

rjb

3

G

2M

A
















Cousins et al. (1999)

NZ with 66 foreign

610+66

-

25+17

5.17

7.09(7.41)

Mw

0.1

400

rrup for some, rc for most

3

U

U

A(R)
















Gallego and Ordaz (1999) & Gallego (2000)

Colombia

U

-

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

A
















Ólafsson and Sigbjörnsson (1999)

Iceland

8862

-

17

3.4

5.9

Mw63

2

112

repi

1

B

1

A
















Spudich et al. (1999)

Worldwide extensional regimes

142

-

39

5.1

7.2

Mw

0

99.4

rjb

2

G, O

1M

NS
















Wang et al. (1999)

Tangshan, N. China

44

-

6

3.7

4.9

Ms (ML)

2.1

41.3

repi

1

L

1

A
















Zaré et al. (1999)

Iran

468

468

47*

2.7

7.4

Mw (Ms, mb, ML)

4

224

rhypo (rrup for 2)

4

B

2M

R, RS & S
















Ambraseys and Douglas (2000), Douglas (2001a) & Ambraseys and Douglas (2003)

Worldwide

186

183

44

5.83

7.8

Ms

0

15

rjb

3

L

1

A
















Bozorgnia et al. (2000)

Worldwide

2823

2823

48

4.7

7.7

Mw

U

60

rseis

4

G

U

A (R,S,T)
















Campbell and Bozorgnia (2000)

Worldwide

96064

94165

4966

4.7

7.7

Mw

1*

60*

rseis

4

G

1

A (S,R,T)
















Field (2000)

S California

447

-

28

5.1

7.5

Mw

0

148.9

rjb

C (6)

G

1M

A (R, S, O)
















Jain et al. (2000)

Central Himalayas

32 (117)

-

3

5.5

7.0

U

2 (4)

152 (322)

repi

1

U

1

T
















Kobayashi et al. (2000)

Japan

U

-

U

5.0

7.8

Mw

0.9*

400*

U

4

B

1M

A
















Monguilner et al. (2000a)

W. Argentina

5467

-

1067

4.367

7.4

Ms if ML & Ms > 6, ML otherwise

1167

35067

rhypo

2

U

1W

A
















Paciello et al. (2000)

Greece & Italy

115

-

18

4.5*

U

Mw or Ms

U

U

repi

3

B

1

A (N)
















Sharma (2000)

Indian Himalayas

-

66

5

5.5

6.6

U

8

248

rhypo

1

-

1W

A
















Si and Midorikawa (1999, 2000)

Japan

856

-

21

5.8

8.3

Mw

0*

280*

Both rq & rrup

2

L

O

A
















Smit et al. (2000)

Caucasus

84

-

26

4.0

7.1

Ms

4

230

repi68

1

L

2

A
















Takahashi et al. (2000)

Japan+166 foreign

1332

-

U+7*

5* (5.8*)

8.3* (8*)

Mw

1* (0.1*)

300* (100*)

rrup, rhypo for some

4

G

O

A
















Wang and Tao (2000)

W. N. America

182

-

23

5.0

7.7

Mw (ML)

0.5

370

rjb

2

L

O

A
















Wang et al. (2000)

China

U

-

U

U

U

U

U

U

rhypo

1

U

1

A
















Chang et al. (2001)

Taiwan

472069, 252870

-

4569, 1970

4.169, 4.670

7.069, 6.370

Mw (ML for ML < 6.5)

069, 40.270

264.469, 272.470

repi69, rhypo70

1

G

2

A
















Herak et al. (2001)

Dinarides

145

145

46

4.5

6.8

ML

3*

200*

repi

1

L

2

A
















Lussou et al. (2001)

Japan

3011

3011

102

3.7

6.3

MJMA

4*

600*

rhypo

4

B

2

A
















Sanchez and Jara (2001)

Pacific coast of Mexico

U

-

U

U

U

Ms

U

U

repi

1

U

U

BF
















Wu et al. (2001)

Taiwan

1941

-

60

4.8

7.6

Mw (ML)

0.05*

400*

rrup (repi for some)

1 & I

U

U

A
















Chen and Tsai (2002)

Taiwan

424

-

48

U

U

ML

U

U

rhypo

1

U

O

A
















Gregor et al. (2002a)

Shallow crustal worldwide (mainly California)

993

993

68

4.4

7.4

Mw

0.1

267.3

rrup

2

U

1M

A (S, R/O, T)
















Gülkan and Kalkan (2002)

Turkey

9371

-

19

4.5

7.4

Mw

1.20

150

rjb, repi

3

L, R

1

A
















Iglesias et al. (2002)

Mexico

U

-

10

5.4

7.4

Mw

U

400*

rhypo

1

V

1

B
















Khademi (2002)

Iran

160

160

28*

3.4*

7.4

Mw (mb for Ms < 5 and Ms otherwise)

0.1*

180*

rjb, repi for M < 5.9

2

L

O

A
















Margaris et al. (2002b) & Margaris et al. (2002a)

Greece

744

-

142

4.5

7.0

Mw

1

150

repi

3

B

O

A
















Saini et al. (2002)

Indian Himalayas

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

A
















Schwarz et al. (2002)

N.W. Turkey

683

683

U

0.9*

7.2

ML

0*

250*

repi

3

U

1

A
















Stamatovska (2002)

Romania

19072

-

4

6.1

7.2

U

10*

310*

repi

1

B

1

A
















Tromans and Bommer (2002)

Europe

249

-

51

5.5

7.9

Ms

1

359

rjb

3

L

2

A
















Zonno and Montaldo (2002)

Umbria-Marche

161

-

15

4.5

5.9

ML

2*

100*

repi

2

L

2

N, O
















Alarcón (2003)

Colombia

47

-

U

4.0

6.7

Ms

49.7

322.4

rhypo

1

U

U

A
















Alchalbi et al. (2003)

Syria

49

49

10

3.5

5.8

MCL

21

400

rhypo

2

U

1

A
















Atkinson and Boore (2003)

Subduction zones

1200+

-

43*

5.5

8.3

Mw

11*

550*

rrup

4

C

1M

F, B
















Boatwright et al. (2003)

N. California

4028

-

104

3.3

7.1

Mainly Mw, ML for some

1*

370*

rhypo

4

U

O

A
















Bommer et al. (2003)

Europe & Mid. East

422

-

157

4.0

7.9

Ms (unspecified)

0

260

rjb for Ms > 6.0, repi otherwise

3

L

1M

A (S, R, N)
















Campbell and Bozorgnia (2003d), Campbell and Bozorgnia (2003a) & Bozorgnia and Campbell (2004b)

Worldwide

44373

43974

3675

4.7

7.7

Mw

2*

60*

rseis

4

G

1

A (S & N, R, T)
















Halldórsson and Sveinsson (2003)

Iceland

131

-

12

4.1

6.6

MLw

5*

300*

U

1

U

1

A
















Li et al. (2003)

Yunnan, China

U

-

U

U

7.6

U

U

U

repi

1

EW

1

A
















Nishimura and Horike (2003)

Japan

U

U

U

U

U

MJMA

U

U

rhypo

U

U

1

A
















Shi and Shen (2003)

Shanghai region

U

-

U

U

U

Ms

U

U

rhypo

1

U

U

A
















Sigbjörnsson and Ambraseys (2003)

Europe & Middle East

465

-

U

5*

7*

Mw or Ms

1*

500*

rjb if available, repi otherwise

1

L

1

S
















Skarlatoudis et al. (2003)

Greece

1000

-

225

4.5

7.0

Mw (ML)

1.5*

150*

repi

2

U

O

A (N, ST)
















Ulutaş and Özer (2003)

Turkey

221

-

U

5

7.4

Mw

U

U

repi

1

U

U

A
















Zhao et al. (2003)

Yunnan, China

U

-

U

U

7.6

U

U

U

repi

1

U

1

A
















Beauducel et al. (2004)

Guadeloupe

1430

-

398

1.1

6.3

MD (mb, Mw)

1.7

450

rhypo

1

R

1

A
















Beyaz (2004)

Unknown (Turkey?)

U

-

U

U

U

Mw

U

U

repi

1

U

1

A
















Bragato (2004)

NE Italy (4546.5N & 1214E)

814

-

192

2.5

4.5

ML

U

U

repi

1

U

O

A
















Cantavella et al. (2004)

Iberia

U

-

U

2.5

5.1

MbLg

4

284

repi

1

U

1

A
















Gupta and Gupta (2004)

Koyna region, India

31

31

U

U

6.5

ML

3*

25*

rhypo

1

L

O

A
















Iyengar and Ghosh (2004)

N India

61

-

>5

5.5*

6.6*

U

8*

248*

rhypo

1

L

1

A
















Kalkan and Gülkan (2004a)

Turkey

-

100

47

4.2

7.4

Mw (unspecified scales)

1.2

250

rjb, repi for small events

3

-

1

A
















Kalkan and Gülkan (2004b) and Kalkan and Gülkan (2005)

Turkey

112

-

57

4.0

7.4

Mw (unspecified scales)

1.2

250

rjb, repi for small events

3

L76

1

A
















Lubkowski et al. (2004)

Stable continental regions

163

-

U

3.0

6.8

Mw (ML)

0

854

repi (rjb for 1 event)

1

U

1, 1M, 2, 2M

A
















Marin et al. (2004)

France

63

-

14

2.6

5.6

ML

5

700

rhypo

1

L

1

A
















Midorikawa and Ohtake (2004)

Japan

3335

-

33

5.5

8.3

Mw

0*

300*

rrup

2

L

1

A (C, B, F)
















Özbey et al. (2004)

NW Turkey

195

-

17

5.0

7.4

Mw (ML)

5*

300*

rjb

3

G

1M

NS
















Pankow and Pechmann (2004) and Pankow and Pechmann (2006)

Worldwide extensional regimes

142

-

39

5.1

7.2

Mw

0

99.4

rjb

2

G, O

1M

NS
















Skarlatoudis et al. (2004)

Greece

819

-

423

1.7

5.1

Mw

3

40

repi

1

U

O

A
















Sunuwar et al. (2004)

Okhotsk-Amur plate boundary

667

667

42

4.0

5.6

MJMA

>3

>264

rhypo

1

L

2M

A
















Ulusay et al. (2004)

Turkey

221

-

122

4.1

7.5

Mw (Ms, mb, Md, ML)

5.1

99.7

repi

3

L

1

A
















Adnan et al. (2005)

Worldwide subduction

1100

-

U

5.3

8.5

Mw

U

U

rhypo

1

A

1

BF
















Ambraseys et al. (2005a)

Europe & Middle East

595

-

135

5.0

7.6

Mw

0

99

rjb (repi for small events)

3

L

1WM

A (N, T, S, O)
















Ambraseys et al. (2005b)

Europe & Middle East

-

595

135

5.0

7.6

Mw

0

99

rjb (repi for small events)

3

-

1WM

A (N, T, S, O)
















Bragato (2005)

Worldwide

243

-

60*

5.0

7.8

Ms

0

15

rjb

1

L

O

A
















Bragato and Slejko (2005)

E Alps (45.646.8N & 1214E)

1402

3168

240

2.5

6.3

ML

0

130

rjb & repi

1

R

O

A
















Frisenda et al. (2005)

NW Italy

689977

-

>1152

0.0*

5.178

ML

0

30079

rhypo

2

B

1

A
















García et al. (2005)

Central Mexico

277

277

16

5.2

7.4

Mw

4*

400*

rrup for Mw > 6.5, rhypo otherwise

1

G80

1M

B
















Liu and Tsai (2005)

Taiwan

7907

7907

51

4.05

7.10

Mw (ML)

5*

300*

rhypo

1

M

2M

A
















McGarr and Fletcher (2005)

Central Utah coal-mining areas

72

-

12

0.98

4.2

Mw (MCL)

0.5*

10*

rhypo

2

L

2M

M
















Nath et al. (2005a)

Sikkim (Himalaya)

240*