Chapter 5
General characteristics of GMPEs for spectral ordinates

Table 5.1 gives the general characteristics of published attenuation relations for spectral ordinates. The columns are the same as in Table 3.1 with three extra columns:

Ts
Number of periods for which attenuation equations are derived
Tmin
Minimum period for which attenuation equation is derived
Tmax
Maximum period for which attenuation equation is derived
Table 5.1: Characteristics of published spectral relations


















Reference

Area

H

V

E

Mmin

Mmax

M scale

rmin

rmax

r scale

S

Ts

Tmin

Tmax

C

R

M





































Johnson (1973)

W. USA

41

-

23

5.3

7.7

mb

6.3

149.8

repi

1

14

0.055

2.469

M

1

A



















Kobayashi and Nagahashi (1977)

Japan

U

-

U

5.4*

7.9*

U

60*

210*

rhypo

I

U

0.1

5

R1

O

A



















McGuire (1977)

W. USA

34

-

22

5.3

7.6

ML

14

125

rhypo

1

16

0.1

8

B

U

A



















Trifunac (1977) & Trifunac and Anderson (1977)

W. USA

182

182

46

3.8

7.7

Mostly ML

62*

4003*

repi

3

91

0.04

12

B

O

A



















Faccioli (1978)

W. USA, Japan, Papua New Guinea, Mexico & Greece

264

-

11

5.3

7.8

U

15

342

rhypo

1

15

0.1

4

B

U

A



















McGuire (1978a)

W. USA

70

-

17+*

4.5*

7.7

U5

11*

210*

rhypo

2

1

1

1

B

U

A



















Trifunac (1978) & Trifunac and Anderson (1978a)

W. USA

182

182

46

3.8

7.7

Mostly ML

66*

4007*

repi

3

91

0.04

12

B

O

A



















Trifunac and Anderson (1978b)

W. USA

182

182

46

3.8

7.7

Mostly ML

68*

4009*

repi

3

91

0.04

12

B

O

A



















Cornell et al. (1979)

W. USA

70

-

U

U

U

ML

U

U

rhypo

1

7

0.17

5

C

U

A



















Faccioli and Agalbato (1979)

Friuli, Italy

38

-

14

3.7

6.3

ML

5 (repi)

190 (repi)

rhypo

2

1

1

1

B

1

A



















Trifunac and Lee (1979)

W. N. America

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

repi

3

91

0.04

15

U

U

A



















Ohsaki et al. (1980a)

Japan

95

-

29+

3.9*

7.2*

U

3*

500*

rhypo

2

86

0.02

5

U

1

A



















Ohsaki et al. (1980b)

Japan

75

-

U

4

7.4

U

6

500

rhypo

1

U

0.02

5

U

1

A



















Trifunac (1980)

W. USA

U

-

U

U

U

U

U

U

repi

C

91

0.04

7.5

U

U

A



















Devillers and Mohammadioun (1981)

W. USA

186

-

U

3.3*

7.7*

U

10

250*

rhypo

1

46

0.04

10

U

1

A



















Joyner and Boore (1982a)

W. N. America

64

-

12

5.3*

7.7

Mw

0.6*

110*

rjb

2

12

0.1

4

L

2

A



















Joyner and Boore (1982b)

W. N. America

64

-

12

5.3*

7.7

Mw

0.6*

110*

rjb

2

12

0.1

4

L, R

2

A



















Kobayashi and Midorikawa (1982)

Japan

45

-

U

5.1

7.5

U

50

280

rhypo

1

U

0.1

5

U

O

A



















Joyner and Fumal (1984), Joyner and Fumal (1985) & Joyner and Boore (1988)

W. N. America

U

-

U

5.0

7.7

Mw(ML)

U

U

rjb

C

12

0.1

4

L

U

A



















Kawashima et al. (1984)

Japan

197

-

90

5.0

U

MJMA

U

U

repi

3

10

0.1

3

R

1

A



















Kawashima et al. (1985)

Japan

-

119

90*

5.0*

7.5*

MJMA

5*

500*

repi

3

10

0.1

3

-

1

A



















Trifunac and Lee (1985b)

W. N. America

438

438

104

U

U

U

U

U

rhypo

3, C

91

0.04

15

U

U

A



















Kamiyama and Yanagisawa (1986)

Japan

228

-

69

4.5

7.9

MJMA

3

323

repi

I

45

0.1

10

U

1

A



















C.B. Crouse (1987)10

S. California

U

-

U

U

U

Ms

U

U

rrup

1

10

0.05

6

B

U

A



















Lee (1987) & Lee (1993)

Mostly California

494

494

106

U

U

ML for M 6.5, others for M > 6.5

U

U

repi

3

91

0.04

15

B

U

A



















K. Sadigh (1987)11

W. USA + others

U

-

U

U

U

Mw

U

U

rrup

2

7

0.1

4

B

U

A (S, R)



















Annaka and Nozawa (1988)

Japan

U

-

45

U

U

U

U

U

U

1

U

0.04*

4*

U

1

A



















Crouse et al. (1988)

N. Honshu

64

-

U

5.1

8.2

Mw, Ms & MJMA for < 7.5

42

407

rE, rhypo for M < 7.5

1

10

0.1

4

B

1

A



















Petrovski and Marcellini (1988)

Europe

120

120

46

3

7

U

8

200

rhypo

1

26

0.02

5

L

1

A



















PML (1988)12

USA + Europe + others

162

124

30*

3.0*

7.0

Ms

10*

150

rhypo

3

20

0.025

1

A



















Yokota et al. (1988)

Tokyo

154

24

75 (U)

4.0

6.1

MJMA

59 (60)

206 (100)

rhypo

1

U

0.1 (0.05)

10 (5)

U

U

A



















Youngs et al. (1988)

Worldwide subduction zones

20 + 197 + 389

-

16* (60)

5.6* (5)

8.1* (8.1, 8.2)13

Mw (Ms, mb)

U (15*, 20*)

U (450*, 450*)

rrup, rhypo for Mw 7.5

1

15

0.07

4

G

1W

A (B,F)



















Kamiyama (1989)

Japan

228

-

U

4.1

7.9

MJMA

3

350

repi

I

U

0.05*

10*

U

1

A



















Sewell (1989)

California + 7 other events

112

-

24

5.0

7.7Mw (ML, Ms)

0.6

211

rjb (repi for some)

2

20

0.07

2

C

2

A



















Trifunac and Lee (1989)

Mostly California

438

438

104

U

U

U

U

U

repi

C

12

0.04

14

B

U

A



















Atkinson (1990)

E. N. America + 10 others

92+1014

-

8+3

3.60 (5.16)

6.00 (6.84)

Mw

8 (8)

1215 (23)

rhypo

1

4

0.1

1

B

2

A



















Campbell (1990)

Unknown

U

-

U

U

U

ML for M < 6, Ms for M 6

U

U

rseis

1

15

0.04

4

U

U

A



















Dahle et al. (1990b) & Dahle et al. (1990a)

Worldwide intraplate regions

87

-

56

2.9

7.8

Ms (ML, mb, MCL

6

1300

rhypo

1

89

0.025

4

L

2

A



















Tamura et al. (1990)

Japan

97

-

7

7.1

7.9

MJMA

U

U

repi

3

13

2

20

L

1, O

A



















Tsai et al. (1990)

Worldwide

<88

-

<51

4.9*

7.4

Mw

3*

150*

rrup

1

14

0.07

1

U

M

T (S,O)



















Crouse (1991)

Worldwide subduction zones

235

-

U

5.1

8.2

Mw (Ms, MJMA)

>8

>469

rE, rhypo for M < 7.5

1

10

0.1

4

B

1

A



















Dahle et al. (1991)

Intraplate (particularly Norway)

395+31

-

136+11

2.4*(4.1)

5.2*(6.9)

Ms (ML,MCL)

20* (9.7)

1200* (1300)

rhypo

1

415

0.1

1

L

O

A



















I.M. Idriss (1991)16

Unknown

572

-

30*

4.6

7.4

ML for M < 6, Ms for M 6

1

100

rrup, rhypo for M < 6

1

23

0.03

5

U

U

A



















Loh et al. (1991)

Taiwan

112

-

63

4.0

7.1

ML

5.0

178.3

rhypo

1

11

0.04

10

L

U

A



















Matuschka and Davis (1991)

New Zealand

80

80

30

U

U

U

U

U

U

3

16

0.04

4

B

U

A



















Mohammadioun (1991)

Italy

144

-

46

3.0

6.5

U

6

186

rhypo, 1 eq. with rrup

1

81

0.013

1.95

B

U

A



















Stamatovska and Petrovski (1991)

Mainly Italy and former Yugoslavia

48917

-

78

3*

8*

ML

10*

500*

rhypo

1

23

0.05

5

B

1

A



















Niazi and Bozorgnia (1992)

SMART-1 array, Taiwan

236

234

12

3.6

7.8

ML (MD) for ML < 6.6, else Ms

3.118

119.718

rhypo

1

23

0.03

10

M

2W

A



















Benito et al. (1992)

Campano Lucano

84

-

U

4.7

6.5

ML

3.4*

142*

rhypo

3

15

0.04

10

L

1

A



















Silva and Abrahamson (1992)

W. USA with 4 foreign

U–136

-

U–12

6.1

7.4

Mw

3*

100*

rseis

2

10

1

20

G

1M

A (S,R)



















Tento et al. (1992)

Italy

137

-

40

4

6.6

ML

3.2

170

rjb for ML 5.7, repi otherwise

1

12

0.04

2.75

L

2

A



















Abrahamson and Silva (1993)

W. USA with 4 foreign

22–201

-

1–18

6.0

7.4

Mw

0.6*

100*

rrup

2

10

1

20

G

1M

A (S, R)



















Boore et al. (1993) & Boore et al. (1997)

W. N. America

112

-

14

5.30

7.70

Mw

0

109

rjb

3

46

0.1

2

L, G

2M

A



















Caillot and Bard (1993)

Italy

83

-

40

3.2

6.8

Ms if ML & Ms 6.0 else ML

10

63

rhypo

2

25

0.05

1.98

U

2, 1W

A



















Campbell (1993)

Worldwide

U

-

U

U19

U

ML for M < 6.0 and Ms otherwise

U

U20

rseis

2

15

0.04

4

M

O

A (T,S)



















Sadigh et al. (1993) & Sadigh et al. (1997)

California with 4 foreign

960+4

U

119+2

3.8 (6.8)

7.4 (7.4)

Mw

0.1 (3)

305 (172)21

rrup for some, rhypo for small ones

2

21

0.0522

7.523

G

U

A(R,S)



















Electric Power Research Institute (1993a)

Eastern North America

66

132

U

4*

6.8*

Mw, mLg

5*

1000*

rhypo (rrup for largest)

3

10

0.03

1

G

1M

A



















Sun and Peng (1993)

W. USA with 1 foreign

150+1

-

42+1

4.1

7.7

ML for M < 6, else Ms

2*

150*

repi

C

U

0.04

10

R

1

A



















Boore et al. (1994a) & Boore et al. (1997)

W. N. America

112 (70)

-

14 (9)

5.30

7.70 (7.40)

Mw

0

109

rjb

C

46

0.1

2

L, G

1M, 2M

A (R,S)24



















Climent et al. (1994)

Central America & Mexico

280

U

72

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

U

0.05*

2

U

U

A



















Fukushima et al. (1994) & Fukushima et al. (1995)

3 vertical arrays in Japan

285

284

42

5.0

7.7

MJMA

60*

400*

rhypo

I

U

0.05

2

B

1,2

A



















Lawson and Krawinkler (1994)

W. USA

250+

-

11

5.8

7.4

Mw

U

100

rjb

3

38

0.1

4

U

1M

A



















Lee and Manić (1994) & Lee (1995)

Former Yugoslavia

313

313

183

3.75

7.0

U

4

250

repi

6

12

0.04

2

U

2R

A



















Mohammadioun (1994a)

California

10825

56

23

5.3

7.7

ML

3

136

Often rrup, rhypo in far field

1

96

0.013

5

B

1

A



















Mohammadioun (1994b)

W. USA

53026

265

U

U

U

ML

1

250

rrup, rE if more appropriate, rhypo in far field

1

96

0.013

5

B

1

A



















Musson et al. (1994)

UK + 28* foreign

88*+28*27

-

15+16

3 (3.7)

4.1 (6.4)

ML

70* (>1.3)

>477.4 (200*)

rhypo

1

4

0.1

1

U28

O

A



















Theodulidis and Papazachos (1994)

Greece+16 foreign

105+1629

-

36+4

4.5 (7.2)

7.0 (7.5)

Ms, Mw, MJMA

1 (48)

128 (236)

repi

2

73

0.05

5

B

O

A



















Dahle et al. (1995)

Cen. America

280

-

72

3*

8*

Mw (Ms, mb, MD)

6*

490*

rhypo

2

8

0.025

4

L

1B

A



















Lee and Trifunac (1995)

W. N. America

1926

1926

297

1.7

7.7

Usually ML for M 6.5 and Ms for M > 6.5

2

200+

rhypo

9, 3 × C

91

0.04

15

U

1

A



















Ambraseys et al. (1996)

Europe & Mid. East

422

-

157

4.0

7.9

Ms (unspecified)

0

260

rjb for M > 6.0, repi otherwise

3

46

0.1

2

L

2

A



















Ambraseys and Simpson (1996)

Europe & Mid. East

-

417

157

4.0

7.9

Ms (unspecified)

0

260

rjb for M > 6.0, repi otherwise

3

46

0.1

2

L

2

A



















Bommer et al. (1996)

El Salvador & Nicaragua

36

-

20

3.7

7.0

Ms

62

260

rhypo

1

10

0.1

2

L

U

A



















Crouse and McGuire (1996)

Cen. & S. California

238

-

16

6.0

7.7

Ms

0.1

211

rrup

4

14

0.04

14

G

1W

R,S (R,S)



















Free (1996) & Free et al. (1998)

Stable continental regions

399–410

347–477

H: 137–138, V: 126–132

1.5

6.8

Mw

0

820

rjb for some, repi for most

2

52

0.04

2

L

1

A



















Molas and Yamazaki (1996)

Japan

2166

-

387

4.1

7.8

MJMA

8*

1000*

rrup for 2 earthquakes, rhypo otherwise

I

12

0.1

4

L

O

A



















Ohno et al. (1996)

California

248

-

17

5.0

7.5

Mw (ML)

7.2

99.6

rq for M > 5.3, rhypo otherwise

2

U

0.02

2

B

2M

A



















Sabetta and Pugliese (1996)

Italy

95

95

17

4.6

6.8

Ms if ML & Ms 5.5 else ML

1.5, 1.5

179, 18030

Both rjb & repi

3

14

0.04

4

L

1

A



















Spudich et al. (1996) & Spudich et al. (1997)

Worldwide extensional regimes

99–118

-

27–29

5.10

6.90

Mw

0

102.1

rjb

2

46

0.1

2

G, C

2M

NS



















Abrahamson and Silva (1997)

California with some others

655*

650*

58

4.4

7.4

U

0.1

220*

rrup

2

28

0.01

5

G

1M

A (S,O,T)



















Atkinson (1997)

Cascadia with some foreign

U

-

11+9

4.1

6.7(8.2)

Mw

20*

580*

rc for some, rhypo for small ones

2

12

0.1

2

B

2

A



















Campbell (1997), Campbell (2000) & Campbell (2001)

Worldwide

266 31

173

H:30, V:22

4.7

8.1

Ms for Ms 6, ML for Ms < 6

3

50

rseis

3

13

0.05

4

G

IW

A (S,R,N)



















Schmidt et al. (1997)

Costa Rica

200

-

57

3.3

7.6

Mw (Ms, mb, MD)

6.1

182.1

rhypo

3

7

0.025

4

L, B

O

A



















Youngs et al. (1997)

Worldwide subduction zones

476

-

164

5.0

8.2

Mw (Ms,mb)

8.5

550.9

rrup, rhypo for some

2

11

0.075

3

G

1M

NT (N,T)



















Bommer et al. (1998)

Europe & Mid. East

121–183

-

34–43

5.5

7.9

Ms

3

260

rjb for most, repi otherwise

3

66

0.04

3

L

2

A



















Perea and Sordo (1998)

Urban area of Puebla, Mexico

1032

-

8

5.8

8.1

mb for M < 6, Ms otherwise

274

663

repi

1

195

0.01

3.5

L

1

A



















Reyes (1998)

University City, Mexico City

20+

-

20+

U

U

Mw

U

U

rrup

I

2

1.0

3.0

S

U

A



















Shabestari and Yamazaki (1998)

Japan

3990

-

1020

U

8.1

MJMA

U

U

rrup

U

35

0.04

10

L

O

A



















Chapman (1999)

W. N. America

304

-

23

5.0

7.7

Mw

0.1

189.4

rjb

3

24

0.1

2

G

2M

A



















Spudich et al. (1999)

Worldwide extensional regimes

105–132

-

38

5.1

7.2

Mw

0

99.4

rjb

2

46

0.1

2

G

1M

NS



















Ambraseys and Douglas (2000), Douglas (2001a) & Ambraseys and Douglas (2003)

Worldwide

186

183

44

5.83

7.8

Ms

0

15

rjb

3

46

0.1

2

L

1

A



















Bozorgnia et al. (2000)

Worldwide

1308

1308

33

U

U

Mw

U

60

rseis

4

U

0.05

4

G

U

A (R,S,T)



















Campbell and Bozorgnia (2000)

Worldwide

275–435

274–434

36

4.7

7.7

Mw

1*

60*

rseis

4

14

0.05

4

G

1

A (S,R,T)



















Chou and Uang (2000)

California

273

-

15

5.6

7.4

Mw

0*

120

rjb

3

25

0.1

3

G

2M

A



















Field (2000)

S California

357–447

-

28

5.1

7.5

Mw

0

148.9

rjb

C (6)

3

0.3

3.0

G

1M

A (R, S, O)



















Kawano et al. (2000)

Japan

107

107

44

5.5

7.0

MJMA

27

202

rq

I, C

U

0.02

5

U

O

A



















Kobayashi et al. (2000)

Japan

U

-

U

5.0

7.8

Mw

0.9*

400*

U

4

17

0.1

5

B

1M

A



















McVerry et al. (2000)

NZ with 66 foreign

224 (461+66)

-

(51+17)

(5.08)

(7.23(7.41))

Mw

(0.1)

(573)

(rrup for some, rc for most)

4

U

0.01*

4*

U

O

A (N, R, RO)



















Monguilner et al. (2000b)

W. Argentina

54

54

10

4.3

7.4

Ms if ML & Ms > 6, ML otherwise

11

350

rhypo

2

200

0.1

6

U

1W

A



















Paciello et al. (2000)

Greece & Italy

115

-

18

4.5*

U

Mw or Ms

U

U

repi

3

2

0.2

1

B

1

A (N)



















Shabestari and Yamazaki (2000)

Japan

6017

-

94

5.0

6.6

MJMA

7*

950*

rrup

I

35

0.04

10

L

O

A



















Smit et al. (2000)

Caucasus

84

-

26

4.0

7.1

Ms

4

230

rhypo

1

22

0.05

1

L

2

A



















Takahashi et al. (2000)

Japan+166 foreign

1332

-

U+7*

5* (5.8*)

8.3* (8*)

Mw

1* (0.1*)

300* (100*)

rrup, rhypo for some

4

20

0.05

5

G

O

A



















Lussou et al. (2001)

Japan

3011

3011

102

3.7

6.3

MJMA

4*

600*

rhypo

4

63

0.02

10

B

2

A



















Das et al. (2002, 2006)

NE India

174

-

6

5.5

7.2

Ms

53.51*

153.91*

rhypo

1

20

0.04

1

V

2

A



















Gülkan and Kalkan (2002)

Turkey

9333

-

19

4.5

7.4

Mw

1.20

150

rjb, repi

3

46

0.1

2

L, R

1

A



















Khademi (2002)

Iran

160

160

28*

3.4*

7.4

Mw (mb for Ms < 5 and Ms otherwise)

0.1*

180*

rjb, repi for M < 5.9

2

13

0.05

4

L

O

A



















Manic (2002)

Former Yugoslavia

15334

77

19

4.0 and 4.2

6.9 and 7.0

Ms and ML

0 and 0

110 and 150

rjb and repi

2

14

0.04

4

B

1

A



















Schwarz et al. (2002)

N.W. Turkey

683

683

U

0.9*

7.2

ML

0*

250*

repi

3

11

0.01

2

U

1

A



















Zonno and Montaldo (2002)

Umbria-Marche

161

-

15

4.5

5.9

ML

2*

100*

repi

2

14

0.04

4

L

2

N, O



















Alarcón (2003)

Colombia

45 or 47

-

U

4.0

6.7

Ms

49.7

322.4

rhypo

1

84

0.05

3

U

U

A



















Atkinson and Boore (2003)

Subduction zones

1200+

-

43*

5.5

8.3

Mw

11*

550*

rrup

4

7

0.04

3

C

1M

F, B



















Berge-Thierry et al. (2003)

Europe & Mid. East+163 from W. USA

802+16335

403+8236

130+8

4.0 (5.8)

7.9 (7.4)

Ms (Mw for W. USA)

4

330

rhypo

2

143

0.03

10

B

2

A



















Bommer et al. (2003)

Europe & Mid. East

422

-

157

4.0

7.9

Ms (unspecified)

0

260

rjb for Ms > 6.0, repi otherwise

3

46

0.1

2

L

1M

A (S, R, N)



















Campbell and Bozorgnia (2003d), Campbell and Bozorgnia (2003a) & Bozorgnia and Campbell (2004b)

Worldwide

443

439

3637

4.7

7.7

Mw

2*

60*

rseis

4

14

0.05

4

G

1

A (S & N, R, T)



















Fukushima et al. (2003)

Mainly west Eurasia+some US and Japanese

399+341

-

40+10

5.5

7.4

Mw (Ms)

0.5

235

rhypo (rrup for 2 earthquakes)

2

11

0.03

2

B

2

A



















Kalkan and Gülkan (2004a)

Turkey

-

95–10038

47

4.2

7.4

Mw (unspecified scales)

1.2

250

rjb, repi for small events

3

46

0.1

2

-

1

A



















Kalkan and Gülkan (2004a)

Turkey

112

-

57

4.0

7.4

Mw (unspecified scales)

1.2

250.0

rjb, repi for small events

3

46

0.1

2

L39

1

A



















Matsumoto et al. (2004)

Japan

29340

-

63

5.0*

7.6*

MJMA

0*

195*

rrup & rq

1

U

0.02*

4*

M

1M

A (B, C, F)



















Özbey et al. (2004)

NW Turkey

195

-

17

5.0

7.4

Mw (ML)

5*

300*

rjb

3

31

0.10

4.0

G

1M

NS



















Pankow and Pechmann (2004) and Pankow and Pechmann (2006)

Worldwide extensional regimes

142

-

39

5.1

7.2

Mw

0

99.4

rjb

2

46

0.1

2.0

G, O

1M

NS



















Sunuwar et al. (2004)

Okhotsk-Amur plate boundary

667

667

42

4.0

5.6

MJMA

>3

>264

rhypo

1

19

0.05

3.0

L

2M

A



















Takahashi et al. (2004)

Mainly Japan+W USA+Iran

4400

-

270

4.9*

8.3*

Mw

0.3*

300

rrup for some, rhypo for rest

4

21

0.02

5.0

G

1M

A (B, F, R, S)



















Wang et al. (2004)

Chi-chi aftershocks (Taiwan)

200*

-

4

5.8

6.3

Mw

20*

80*

rjb

1

14

0.1

5

G

1M

R



















Yu and Hu (2004)

W USA

522+18741

-

38+14*

5.0

7.5

Ms

1.5*

575*

repi

1

U

0.04

20

B

O

A



















Ambraseys et al. (2005a)

Europe & Middle East

207–595

-

59–135

5.0

7.6

Mw

0

99

rjb (repi for small events)

3

61

0.05

2.5

L

1M

A (N, T, S, O)



















Ambraseys et al. (2005b)

Europe & Middle East

-

207–595

59–135

5.0

7.6

Mw

0

99

rjb (repi for small events)

3

61

0.05

2.5

-

1M

A (N, T, S, O)



















Bragato and Slejko (2005)

E Alps (45.646.8N & 1214E)

1402

3168

240

2.5

6.3

ML

0

130

rjb & repi

1

47

0.05

2.0

R

O

A



















García et al. (2005)

Central Mexico

277

277

16

5.2

7.4

Mw

4*

400*

rrup for Mw > 6.5, rhypo otherwise

1

15

0.04

5

G42

1M

B



















McGarr and Fletcher (2005)

Central Utah coal-mining areas

31–72

-

12

0.98

4.2

Mw (MCL)

0.5*

10*

rhypo

2

5

0.1

2.0

L

2M

M



















Pousse et al. (2005)

Japan

6812

-

591

4.1

7.3

Mw (MJMA)

5.5

303

rhypo (rrup for 10 events)

5

U

0.01

4.0

B

2

A



















Takahashi et al. (2005), Zhao et al. (2006) and Fukushima et al. (2006)

Japan+208 overseas

2763–4518+208

-

<249+20

5.0

8.3

Mw

0*

300*

rrup

5

20

0.05

5

G

1M

C (R, S/N) & F, B



















Wald et al. (2005)

California

U

-

U

U

5.3*

Mw

U

U

rjb

1

3

0.3

3

L

U

A



















Atkinson (2006)

Los Angeles region

461–4973

-

509+

3.1*

7.1*

Mw

5*

350*

repi (rjb for some)

3

0.3

3.0

I, C

B

1

A



















Beyer and Bommer (2006)

Shallow crustal (USA, Taiwan, Turkey and others)

949

-

103

4.3*

7.9*

Mw

6*

200*

rhypo

U

77

0.01

5.0

1, 2, A, B, C, D50, G, I50, L, N, P, R

1M

A (U)



















Bindi et al. (2006)

Umbria-Marche

144–239

-

45

4.0

5.9

ML

1*

100*

repi & rhypo

4

14

0.04

4

L

1M

NS



















Campbell and Bozorgnia (2006a) and Campbell and Bozorgnia (2006b)

Worldwide

1500+

-

60+

4.2

7.9

Mw

0

200

rrup

C

U

U

10

G

2M

A



















Hernandez et al. (2006)

Haulien LSTT (Taiwan)

456

456

51

5

7.3

ML

13.7

134.8

rhypo

5

143

0.03

10

B

1

A



















Jaimes et al. (2006)

Ciudad Universitaria station, Mexico City

21

-

21

6.0

8.1

Mw

285

530

rrup

1

30

0.2

6

U

1B

F



















Kanno et al. (2006)

Japan+some foreign

3205–3392+331–377 (shallow) & 7721–8150 (deep)

-

70–73+10 & 101–111

5.0* (6.1) & 5.5*

8.2* (7.4) & 8.0*

Mw (MJMA)

1* (1.5*) & 30*

450* (350*) & 450*

rrup (rhypo for some)

C

37

0.05

5

R

2M

A



















Kataoka et al. (2006)

Japan

5160

-

47

4.8*

6.9*

Mw

1*

200*

U

1

18

0.1

5

U

U

C



















McVerry et al. (2006)

New Zealand

435

-

49

5.08

7.09

Mw

6

400

rc (rrup)

3

11

0.075

3

L, G

1M

C (R, OR, S & N) & F, B



















Pousse et al. (2006)

Japan

939043

-

U

4.1

7.3

(Mw)

5*

250*

rhypo (rrup for some)

5

U

0.01

3

B

2M

A



















Sakamoto et al. (2006)

Japan

3198

-

52

5.5

8.3

Mw

1

300

rrup

5

U

0.02

5

M

1M

A



















Sharma and Bungum (2006)

Indian Himalayas+9 European records

175+9

-

12+7

4.5 (6.0)

7.2 (7.4)

Mw (mb)

10

200

rhypo

2

13

0.04

2.5

G

1W

A



















Sigbjörnsson and Elnashai (2006)

Europe & Mid. East

422

-

157

4.0

7.9

Ms (unspecified)

0

260

rjb for M > 6.0, repi otherwise

3

52

0.1

4

L

2

A



















Tapia (2006) & Tapia et al. (2007)

Western Mediterranean

334

-

30

3.8

6.0

ML

6

542

repi

1

5

0.1

2.0

U

1

A



















Uchiyama and Midorikawa (2006)

Japan

3198

-

52

5.5

8.3

Mw

U

U

rrup

1

U

0.02

5

G

2M

A (C/F, B)



















Zare and Sabzali (2006)

Iran

89

89

55*

2.7

7.4

Mw

4

167

rhypo

4

21

0.10

4

U

1M & 2M

A



















Akkar and Bommer (2007b)

Europe & Middle East

532

-

131

5.0

7.6

Mw

0

99

rjb

3

80

0.05

4

G

1WM

A (N, S, R)



















Bindi et al. (2007)

NW Turkey

4047

4047

528

0.5

5.9

ML44

5*

200*

rhypo45

2

8

0.1

146

L

1M

A



















Bommer et al. (2007)

Europe and Middle East

997

-

289

3

7.6

Mw

0

99

rjb (repi for small events)

3

10

0.05

0.50

G

1WM

A (N, S, R)



















Boore and Atkinson (2007) & Boore and Atkinson (2008)

Worldwide shallow crustal

600*–1574

-

18*–58

4.27–5.0047

7.9048

Mw

0

28049

rjb

C

21

0.01

10

I50

2M

A (N, R, S, U)



















Campbell and Bozorgnia (2007), Campbell and Bozorgnia (2008b) & Campbell and Bozorgnia (2008a)

Worldwide shallow crustal

506–1561

-

21–64

4.2750

7.9051

Mw

0.07

199.27

rrup

C

21

0.01

10

I50

1M

A (N, R, S, HW)



















Danciu and Tselentis (2007a), Danciu and Tselentis (2007b) & Danciu (2006)

Greece

335

-

151

4.5

6.9

Mw

0*

136

repi

3

31

0.10

4

A

1M

A (N, ST)



















Fukushima et al. (2007c) & Fukushima et al. (2007b)

Mainly west Eurasia+some US and Japanese

399+339

-

40+10

5.5

7.4

Mw (Ms)

0.5

235

rhypo (rrup for 2 earthquakes)

5

U

0.03

3

B

2M

A



















Hong and Goda (2007) & Goda and Hong (2008)

California

484–592

-

34–39

5*

7.4*

Mw

0.2*

100*

rjb

C

27

0.1

3

G, Q, R

1M

A



















Massa et al. (2007)

Central northern Italy

1063

-

243

2.5

5.2

ML

0*

300*

rhypo

2

8

0.1

1.5

L

1

A



















Tejeda-Jácome and Chávez-García (2007)

Colima, Mexico

162

162

26

3.3

5.2

ML

5*

175

rhypo

1

H:10, V:9

0.07

H:0.99, V:0.80

G

2M

A



















Abrahamson and Silva (2008) & Abrahamson and Silva (2009)

Worldwide shallow crustal

500*–2754

-

64–135

4.2752

7.953

Mw

0.06*

200*

rrup

C

22

0.01

10

I50

1M

A (N, R, S, HW)



















Aghabarati and Tehranizadeh (2008)

Worldwide shallow crustal

646

646

54

5.2

7.9

Mw

0

60

rrup

C

26

0.025

10

G

1M

A (N, R, S)



















Cauzzi and Faccioli (2008) & Cauzzi (2008)

Worldwide shallow crustal

1164

1132

60

5.0

7.2

Mw

6*

150*

rhypo

4 & C

400

0.05

20

G

2M

A (N, S, R)



















Chen and Yu (2008a)

Worldwide shallow crustal

130

-

U

5.0*

7.5*

Mw

0*

200*

U

1

U

0.04

10

B

1

A



















Chen and Yu (2008b)

Worldwide shallow crustal

130

-

U

5.0*

7.5*

Mw

0*

200*

U

1

U

0.04

10

B

1

A



















Chiou and Youngs (2008)

Worldwide shallow crustal

195054

-

125

4.26555

7.9056

Mw

0.2*57

70*58

rrup

C

22

0.01

10

I50

1M

A (N, R, S, HW, AS)



















Cotton et al. (2008)

Japan

3894

-

337

4

7.3

Mw (MJMA)

1

100

rrup (rhypo for small)

459 & 260

23

0.01

3.33

G

2M

A



















Dhakal et al. (2008)

Northern Japan

772 (B), 1749 (F)

-

10 (B), 20 (F)

5.4 (B), 5.1 (F)

7.0 (B), 7.3 (F)

Mw

70*

300*

rhypo

1

16

0.1

5

V

2

B, F



















Hancock et al. (2008)

Worldwide shallow crustal

U

-

U

5.6*

7.9*

Mw

0.1*

400*

rjb

3

U

0*

2.5*

U

1M

A (S, N, R/RO)



















Idriss (2008)

Worldwide shallow crustal

942

-

72

4.5

7.7

Mw

0.3

199.3

rrup

2

31

0.01

10

I50

1

A (R/RO/NO, S/N)



















Kataoka et al. (2008)

Japan

1880 (crustal), 2374 (subduction)

-

11 (crustal), 14 (subduction)

5.8 (crustal), 6.1

6.9 (crustal), 8.2 (subduction)

Mw

0.1* (crustal), 10* (subduction)

600* (crustal), 900* (subduction)

U

1

19

2

20

U

U

C, BF



















Lin and Lee (2008)

NE Taiwan+10 foreign

4244+139

-

44+10

4.1 (6.0)

7.3 (8.1)

Mw (ML)

15

630

rhypo

2

27

0.01

5

G

1W

A (B, F)



















Massa et al. (2008)

Northern Italy

306

306

82

3.5 & 4.0

6.3 & 6.5

Mw (ML) & ML

1*

100*

repi

3

12 & 14

0.04

2 & 4

L

1M

A



















Morasca et al. (2008)

Molise

3090

3090

100

2.7

5.7

ML

12*

60*

rhypo

2

12

0.04

2

L

1M

A



















Yuzawa and Kudo (2008)

Japan

1988

-

18

5.9, 5.7

8.0, 7.9

MJMA, Mw

U

U

rq

1

45

1

10

U

2

A



















Ghasemi et al. (2009)

Iran+West Eurasia

716+177

-

200

5.0

7.4

Mw

0.5

100

rrup (rhypo for small events)

2

17

0.05

3

I50

1M

A



















Aghabarati and Tehranizadeh (2009)

Worldwide shallow crustal

678

678

55

5.2

7.9

Mw

0

60

rrup

C

26

0.025

10

G

1M

A (N, R, S)



















Akyol and Karagöz (2009)

Western Anatolia

168

-

49

4.03

6.40

Mw (Md, ML)

15

200

rhypo

2

30

0.05

2

L

2M

A



















Bindi et al. (2009a)

Italy

241

241

27

4.8

6.9

Mw

0

190

rjb

3

18

0.03

2

L, G

1M

A (N, S, R)



















Bindi et al. (2009b)

Italy

235

-

27

4.6

6.9

Mw (ML)

0

183

rjb, repi

3

19

0.03

3

L

1M

A



















Bragato (2009)

Italy

922

-

116

2.7

4.5

ML

6

100

repi

I, 3, 1, C

3

0.3

3

U

1

A



















Goda and Atkinson (2009)

Japan

8557 (3410 shallow, 5147 deep)

-

155 (51 shallow, 104 deep)

5.5

7.9

Mw

1.5*

300*

rrup (rhypo for some M < 6.5)

C

U

0.1

5

G

2M

A (C/F, B)



















Hong et al. (2009a)

Mexico (interface & inslab)

418, 277

-, -

40, 16

5.0, 5.2

8.0, 7.4

Mw

U

U

rrup (rhypo for small)

1

27

0.1

3

G, R, Q

1M

F, S



















Hong et al. (2009b)

California

484–592

-

34–39

5*

7.4*

Mw

0.2*

100*

rjb

C

27

0.1

3

G, R

1M, 2M, O

A



















Kuehn et al. (2009)

Worldwide

2660

-

60

5.61

7.9*

Mw

0.1*

200*

rjb

C

39

0.01

3

G

1M (O)

A (N, R, S)



















Moss (2009) & Moss (2011)

Worldwide shallow crustal

1950

-

125

4.265

7.90

Mw

0.2*

70*

rrup

C

5

0.1

7.5

I50

1M

A (N, R, S, HW, AS)



















Rupakhety and Sigbjörnsson (2009)

South Iceland+others

64+29

-

12

5.02

7.67

Mw

1

97

rjb (repi for some)

2

66

0.04

2.5

L

1

SO



















Sharma et al. (2009)

Indian Himalayas+Zagros

58+143

-

6+10

5.5 & 5.9

6.8 & 6.6

Mw

5* & 10*

190* & 200*

rjb

1

13

0.04

2.5

G

O

A (S, R)



















Akkar and Bommer (2010)

Europe & Middle East

532

-

131

5.0

7.6

Mw

0

99

rjb

3

60

0.05

3

G

1M

A (N, S, R)



















Akkar and Çağnan (2010)

Turkey

433

-

137

5.0

7.6

Mw

0*

200*

rjb

C

14

0.03

2

G

1M

A (N, S, R)



















Amiri et al. (2009)

Alborz and central Iran61

416

-

189

3.262

7.7

Ms (mb)

5*

400*

rhypo

2

15

0.1

4

L

1M

A



















Arroyo et al. (2010)

Pacific coast of Mexico

418

-

40

5.0

8.0

Mw

20

400

rrup (rhypo for Mw < 6)

1

56

0.04

5

U

O

F



















Bindi et al. (2010)

Italy

561

561

107

4.0

6.9

Mw

1*

100*

rjb, repi

3

21

0.03

2

L

1M

A



















Bozorgnia et al. (2010)

Worldwide shallow crustal

506–1561

-

21–64

4.27

7.90

Mw

0.07

199.27

rrup

C

21

0.01

10

G

1M

A (N, R, S, HW)



















Das and Gupta (2010)

Chi-Chi region (Taiwan)

487–498

-

16

4.99

7.3

Mw (ML)

0*

50*

rrup

3

16

0.04*

10

G

1M

A



















Douglas and Halldórsson (2010)

Europe & Middle East

595

-

135

5.0

7.6

Mw

0

99

rjb (repi for small events)

3

61

0.05

2.5

L

1WM

A (N, T, S, O, AS)



















Faccioli et al. (2010)

Worldwide shallow crustal

1499

-

60

4.5

7.6

Mw

0.2*

200*

rrup (rhypo for small)

4 & C

22

0.05

20

G

1M

A (N, R, S)



















Hong and Goda (2010)

California63

484–592

-

34–39

5.0

7.28

Mw

0.2*

100*

rjb

C

6

0.2

3

1, 2

1M

A



















Jayaram and Baker (2010)

Worldwide shallow crustal

1561

-

64

4.27

7.90

Mw

0.07

199.27

rrup

C

21

0.01

10

I50

O

A (N, R, S, HW)



















Montalva (2010) & Rodriguez-Marek et al. (2011)

Japan

3894

-

337

4

7.3

Mw (MJMA)

1

100

rrup (rhypo for small)

C, I

21

0.0384

1.3622

G

O (1M)

A



















Ornthammarath et al. (2010), Ornthammarath (2010) & Ornthammarath et al. (2011)

South Iceland

81

-

6

5.1

6.5

Mw

1*

80*

rjb (repi for Mw < 6)

2

4

0.2

2

G

1M

S



















Rodriguez-Marek and Montalva (2010)

Japan

3894

-

337

4

7.3

Mw (MJMA)

1

100

rrup (rhypo for small)

C

7

0.01

1.3622

G

2M

A



















Sadeghi et al. (2010)

Iran

883

-

79

5

7.4*

Mw

0*

340*

repi

2

8

0.1

3

U

O

A



















Saffari et al. (2010)

Central Iran & Zagros

627

-

110

5

7.4*

Mw

5*

200*

rrup (rhypo for Mw < 6.5)

2

19

0.05

5

U

2M

A



















Anderson and Uchiyama (2011)

Guerrero, Mexico

293

293

27

5.05

7.96

Mw

10*

390*

rrup

1

5

0.1

3

M, V, V3

O

A



















Arroyo and Ordaz (2011)

Worldwide shallow crustal

906, 458

-

44, 28

U

U

Mw

U

U

rrup

1

1

3

3

I50

1M

A (R/RO/NO, S/N)



















Bindi et al. (2011)

Italy

769

-

99

4.1

6.9

Mw

0*

200*

rjb

5

20

0.04

2

G, V

1M

A (S, R, N, U)



















Buratti et al. (2011)

Worldwide shallow crustal

1666

-

U

5.6*

7.9*

Mw

0.1*

400*

rjb

3

U

0.06*

3*

U

1M

A



















Cauzzi et al. (2011)

Global

U

-

U

3

7.9

Mw

0*

150*

rrup (rhypo)

C, 4

10

1

10

B

1M

A



















Chopra and Choudhury (2011)

Gujarat (India)

407

407

>70

3.5

5.7

Mw

0*

300*

rhypo

2

6

0.05

1

G

1

A



















Gehl et al. (2011)

Japan

3874

-

335

4.0

7.3

Mw

0*

340*

rrup

C

5

0.1

2

G

1M, O

A



















Lin et al. (2011b)

Taiwan+8 foreign events

5181+87

-

44+8

3.5 (6.0)

7.6 (7.4)

Mw (ML)

1

240

rrup (rhypo)

2

15

0.01

5

G

1

A (HW)



















Chang et al. (2012)

Taiwan

302

-

58

5.5

7.3

ML

0*

170*

rhypo (rrup for some)

1

U

0.01

10

G

1

A



















Contreras and Boroschek (2012)

Chile

117

-

13

6.5

8.8

Mw

30*

600*

rrup, rhypo for 4 events

2

23

0.04

2

G

1M

F



















Cui et al. (2012)

Sichuan-Yunnan (China)

962

-

>21

4.5

6.5

Ms

0*

110*

repi

2

5

0.04

6

G

1, 1W

A



















Di Alessandro et al. (2012)

Italy

602

-

120

4.0

6.8

Mw

2*

200*

rhypo

7

58

0.033

2.01

G

1M

A



















Hamzehloo and Mahood (2012)

East central Iran

258

-

10964

4.9*

7.4

Mw

1*

200*

rjb

1

14

0.1

5

G

2M

A



















Laouami and Slimani (2012)

Algeria + Europe & USA

633 + 528 & 15565

-

82+17* & 7*

3 (5*)

6.8 (7.3*)

Ms

6* (10*)

140* (150*)

rhypo

2

U

0.01

3*

B

2

A



















Saffari et al. (2012)

Iran

351

-

78

5.0

7.4

Mw

4

190*

rrup (rhypo for Mw < 6.5)

3

20

0.05

5

U

2M

A



















Abrahamson et al. (2013, 2014)

Worldwide shallow crustal

15750–4000*

-

326–70*

3

7.966

Mw

0

300

rrup + others for HW

C

22

0.01

10

D50

1M

A (S, N, R, HW, AS)