### 4.95 Kawano et al. (2000)

• Ground-motion model is: where ci(T) is an individual site amplification factor for each of 12 stations.

• Response parameter is acceleration for 5% damping.
• Focal depths between 0 and 60km.
• Use data either recorded at ground surface where 0.5 V s 2.7kms (1.7 V p 5.5kms) or obtained by analytically removing effects of uppermost surface layers of ground from underground observation data (or by stripping-off analysis) using underground structure.
• Use only ground motion after arrival of first S wave because most important for aseismic design.
• Do not give table of coefficients, only graphs of coefficients.
• Define amplification factors, di(T) = ci(T) - c0(T) for horizontal motion and di(T) = cv,i(T) - c0(T) for vertical motion, where c0(T) is the regression coefficient for data observed at ground layer equivalent to seismic bedrock.
• Find Sh(T) = Sb(T)αh(T)βh(T) where Sb(T) is S0(T). αh(T) = (V s∕V s,b)-δh(T) for T Ts,1 and αh(T) = αh(Ts,1) for T > Ts,1 where Ts,1 is the primary predominant period of surface layer. βh(T) = 1 for T Ts,1, βh(T) = (T∕Ts,1)- log(αh(Ts,1)) for 10Ts,1 > T > Ts,1 and βh(T) = 10- log(αh(Ts,1)) for T 10Ts,1. V s,b = 2.2kms. Similar relationships are defined for vertical motion, Sv(T).
• Note that relation does not include effect of source mechanism or rupture propagation, so probably less valid in near-fault region.